Sunday, 21 October 2012


Factors that affect location decision:

Based on:
  • Political View
  • Economical Factor
  • Cultural
  • Labor
  • Flexibility

Region/community decisions:
  • Corporate desires
  • Attractiveness of region
  • Labor availability of region
  • Cost of utilities
  • Land cost 

Site decisions:
  • Site size and cost
  • Transportation system
  • Zoning restriction

What is Bottleneck?
A point of congestion in a system that occurs when workloads arrive at a given point more quickly than that point can handle them. The inefficiencies brought about by the bottleneck often create a queue and a longer overall cycle time.

For example, a company whose product is in high demand may see its shipping department receive purchase orders more quickly than the products can be shipped out, thus causing a bottleneck.

What is inventory?

Defining Inventory
Inventory is an idle stock of physical goods that contain economic value, and are held in various forms by an organization in its custody awaiting packing, processing, transformation, use or sale in a future point of time.
Any organization which is into production, trading, sale and service of a product will necessarily hold stock of various physical resources to aid in future consumption and sale. While inventory is a necessary evil of any such business, it may be noted that the organizations hold inventories for various reasons, which include speculative purposes, functional purposes, physical necessities etc.
From the above definition the following points stand out with reference to inventory:
  • All organizations engaged in production or sale of products hold inventory in one form or other.
  • Inventory can be in complete state or incomplete state.
  • Inventory is held to facilitate future consumption, sale or further processing/value addition.
  • All inventoried resources have economic value and can be considered as assets of the organization.
Different Types of Inventory
Inventory of materials occurs at various stages and departments of an organization. A manufacturing organization holds inventory of raw materials and consumables required for production. It also holds inventory of semi-finished goods at various stages in the plant with various departments. Finished goods inventory is held at plant, Finished Goods Stores, distribution centers etc. Further both raw materials and finished goods those that are in transit at various locations also form a part of inventory depending upon who owns the inventory at the particular juncture. Finished goods inventory is held by the organization at various stocking points or with dealers and stockiest until it reaches the market and end customers.
Besides Raw materials and finished goods, organizations also hold inventories of spare parts to service the products. Defective products, defective parts and scrap also forms a part of inventory as long as these items are inventoried in the books of the company and have economic value.
Types of Inventory by Function

Raw Materials
Work In Process
Finished Goods
Consumables required for processing. Eg : Fuel, Stationary, Bolts & Nuts etc. required in manufacturing
Semi Finished Production in various stages, lying with various departments like Production, WIP Stores, QC, Final Assembly, Paint Shop, Packing, Outbound Store etc.
Finished Goods at Distribution Centers through out Supply Chain
Maintenance Items/Consumables
Production Waste and Scrap
Finished Goods in transit
Packing Materials
Rejections and Defectives
Finished Goods with Stockiest and Dealers
Local purchased Items required for production

Spare Parts Stocks & Bought Out items

Defectives, Rejects and Sales Returns

Repaired Stock and Parts

Sales Promotion & Sample Stocks


Thursday, 18 October 2012


what is TQM ???? 

is a philosophy that says that uniform commitment to quality in all areas of an organization promotes an organizational culture that meets consumers' perceptions of quality. 

Why should a company adopt TQM? 

1)  Make an organization more competitive

2) Provide a working environment in which everyone can succeed

3) Reduce waste, stress and friction

4) build team, partnership and co-operation

International Quality Standard : 

ISO 9000 ( quality )

ISO 14 000 ( environment ) 

TQM program : 

1) continuous improvement

2) six sigma

3) employee empowerment

4) benchmarking 

5) just in time (JIT)

6) Taguchi concept 

7 ) knowledge of tqm tools

Examples of of tools include : 

1) check sheet 

2) scatter diagrams

3) Pareto charts

4) Cause and Effect diagram 

5) Employee and customer survey 

6) flowchart 

7) histogram 

8) statistical process Control (SPC)

Key element to be successful in TQM : 

1) Ethic 

2) Trust 

3) Training 

4) Teamwork 

5) Leadership 

6) Communication

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

chapter four : forecasting demand



  • used by companies to determine how to allocate their budgets for an upcoming period of time. we also can say it like an organization predicting a future event.
  • it is effect decision and activities throughout an organization such as accounting, finance, human resources, marketing, and product or service design. 
  • This is use of forecast : 
            1) Accounting - it will predict about cost and profit estimate.

            2) finance - it will predict cash flow and funding.

            3) Human resources - it will forecast about hiring, recruiting and 


            4) Product and services design -predict new products and services. 

  • an organization will use three major type of forecasts in planning future operations : 

            1) Economic Forecasts =  it is planning indicators that are valuable 

                                                in helping organizations prepare medium             
                                                long-range forecasts.for example address 
                                                business cycle such as inflation rate,
                                                money supply, housing starts and etc. 

            2) Technological Forecastsit is predict rate of 
                                                             technological progress.  
                                                            another one is impacts

                                                            development of new products.

             3) Demand Forecast = projection of company sales for  

                                                   each time period in the planning 
                                                   horizon. It is like we predict sales of 
                                                   existing products.

                    1) Timely

              2) Reliable

              3) Accurate

              4) Meaningful 

              5) Easy to use


             1) Determine the use of the forecast.
             2) Select item to be forecasted. 

             3) Determine the time horizon of the forecast.

             4) Select the forecasting model(s).

             5) Gather the data needed to make the forecast.

             6) Make the forecast.

             7) Validate and implement the result.

  • Forecasting approaches are divided by two which is Qualitative approaches and Quantitative approaches. 


-Used when situation is vague and little data exist like new product and new technology.

-it is also involved intuition and experienced such as forecasting sales on internet.

- there are four different qualitative forecasting techniques : 
         1) Jury of executive opinion. 
         2) Delphi Method.
         3) Sales force composite.
         4) Consumer market survey.


-Used when situation is 'stable' and historical data exist like existing product and current technology. 

-Involves mathematical technique for an example forecasting sales of color televisions.

-there are two types of quantitative approaches model. : 

  •        Times series model

        1) Naive approaches
        2) Moving average.
        3) Exponential smoothing.
        4) Trend Projection.

  •        Associative model

         5) Linear Regression


-Is a series or arithmetic means.

-uses if little or no trend.

-used often for smoothing that provide overall impression of data over time. 

-This is the way of calculation :

           Moving average =  demand in previous n periods


Moving Average Example

               Actual                                3-Month
  Month             Shed Sales                    Moving Average

January                10  
February              12 

March                    13 

April                       16                           (10+12+13)/3 = 11 2/3

May                        19                           (12+13+16)/3 = 13 2/3

June                       23                           (13+16+19)/3 = 16

July                        26                           (16+19+23)/3 = 19 1/3


- Used when tense is present 

-weight based on experienced or intuition.


      weighted  Moving average =  (weight for period n) x (demand in period n)

Weighted moving average example 

                                         Actual                     3-Month Weighted
  Month                      Shed Sales                  Moving Average

January                           10 

February                         12 

Marc                                 13 

April                                 16                       [(3 x 13) + (2 x 12) + (10)]/6 = 121/6

May                                  19                      [(3 x 16) + (2 x 13) + (12)]/6 = 141/3

June                                 23                      [(3 x 19) + (2 x 16) + (13)]/6 = 17

July                                   26                      [(3 x 23) + (2 x 19) + (16)]/6 = 201/2   


Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) 

MAD = ∑ | actual - forecast | 

Mean Squared Error (MSE

MSE = ∑  (forecast error)  2

Tuesday, 11 September 2012

 chapter 3 : MANAGING PROJECT.  

Is an interrelated set of activities that has definite starting and ending point and the result in unique product or services.  for example is building construction and introducing a new product. 

           this is to make sure that program can run smoothly on day by day basis while new project will 
           successfully completed. 

There are two technique which is PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE(PERT) and the CRITICAL PATH METHOD(CPM). They were both developed to help managers schedule, monitor and control large complex project. 

         there are three : 1) ACTIVITY- the smallest unit of work effort consuming both time and resources 
                                                          that the project manager can schedule and control. 

                                 2)PRECEDENCE RELATIONSHIP-  A sequencing constraint between interrelated 
                                                                                             activities by which one activity cannot start 
                                                                                             until a preceding activity has been completed.
                                3)SCHEDULE- A plan that sets priorities, determines start and finish times, and 
                                                          allocates resources to accomplish the activities. 

        there are two approaches for drawing a project network. which is ACTIVITY ON NODE (AON) 
        and ACTIVITY ON ARROW(AOA). for AON it is a network diagram in which node designated 
        activities. While for AOA means a network diagram in which arrow designate activities. furthermore,
        CRITICAL PATH  is about the computed longest time path(s) through a network. 

                                                                  example of AOA


                                                                 example of AON 

okay, now we gonna talk about how to find a slack time. slack time is the length of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project. here the calculation how to calculate the slack time. this is very easy to understand. 

example of slack time calculation

lastly, in PERT they employ a probability distribution based on three time estimates for each activity , as follows : 
          1) optimistic time (a) = the best activity completion time that could be obtained in a PERT network. 
          2) pessimistic time (b) = the worst activity time that could be expected in a PERT network. 
          3) most likely time (m)= the most probable time to complete an activity in a PERT network.