Sunday, 21 October 2012


Factors that affect location decision:

Based on:
  • Political View
  • Economical Factor
  • Cultural
  • Labor
  • Flexibility

Region/community decisions:
  • Corporate desires
  • Attractiveness of region
  • Labor availability of region
  • Cost of utilities
  • Land cost 

Site decisions:
  • Site size and cost
  • Transportation system
  • Zoning restriction

What is Bottleneck?
A point of congestion in a system that occurs when workloads arrive at a given point more quickly than that point can handle them. The inefficiencies brought about by the bottleneck often create a queue and a longer overall cycle time.

For example, a company whose product is in high demand may see its shipping department receive purchase orders more quickly than the products can be shipped out, thus causing a bottleneck.

What is inventory?

Defining Inventory
Inventory is an idle stock of physical goods that contain economic value, and are held in various forms by an organization in its custody awaiting packing, processing, transformation, use or sale in a future point of time.
Any organization which is into production, trading, sale and service of a product will necessarily hold stock of various physical resources to aid in future consumption and sale. While inventory is a necessary evil of any such business, it may be noted that the organizations hold inventories for various reasons, which include speculative purposes, functional purposes, physical necessities etc.
From the above definition the following points stand out with reference to inventory:
  • All organizations engaged in production or sale of products hold inventory in one form or other.
  • Inventory can be in complete state or incomplete state.
  • Inventory is held to facilitate future consumption, sale or further processing/value addition.
  • All inventoried resources have economic value and can be considered as assets of the organization.
Different Types of Inventory
Inventory of materials occurs at various stages and departments of an organization. A manufacturing organization holds inventory of raw materials and consumables required for production. It also holds inventory of semi-finished goods at various stages in the plant with various departments. Finished goods inventory is held at plant, Finished Goods Stores, distribution centers etc. Further both raw materials and finished goods those that are in transit at various locations also form a part of inventory depending upon who owns the inventory at the particular juncture. Finished goods inventory is held by the organization at various stocking points or with dealers and stockiest until it reaches the market and end customers.
Besides Raw materials and finished goods, organizations also hold inventories of spare parts to service the products. Defective products, defective parts and scrap also forms a part of inventory as long as these items are inventoried in the books of the company and have economic value.
Types of Inventory by Function

Raw Materials
Work In Process
Finished Goods
Consumables required for processing. Eg : Fuel, Stationary, Bolts & Nuts etc. required in manufacturing
Semi Finished Production in various stages, lying with various departments like Production, WIP Stores, QC, Final Assembly, Paint Shop, Packing, Outbound Store etc.
Finished Goods at Distribution Centers through out Supply Chain
Maintenance Items/Consumables
Production Waste and Scrap
Finished Goods in transit
Packing Materials
Rejections and Defectives
Finished Goods with Stockiest and Dealers
Local purchased Items required for production

Spare Parts Stocks & Bought Out items

Defectives, Rejects and Sales Returns

Repaired Stock and Parts

Sales Promotion & Sample Stocks


Thursday, 18 October 2012


what is TQM ???? 

is a philosophy that says that uniform commitment to quality in all areas of an organization promotes an organizational culture that meets consumers' perceptions of quality. 

Why should a company adopt TQM? 

1)  Make an organization more competitive

2) Provide a working environment in which everyone can succeed

3) Reduce waste, stress and friction

4) build team, partnership and co-operation

International Quality Standard : 

ISO 9000 ( quality )

ISO 14 000 ( environment ) 

TQM program : 

1) continuous improvement

2) six sigma

3) employee empowerment

4) benchmarking 

5) just in time (JIT)

6) Taguchi concept 

7 ) knowledge of tqm tools

Examples of of tools include : 

1) check sheet 

2) scatter diagrams

3) Pareto charts

4) Cause and Effect diagram 

5) Employee and customer survey 

6) flowchart 

7) histogram 

8) statistical process Control (SPC)

Key element to be successful in TQM : 

1) Ethic 

2) Trust 

3) Training 

4) Teamwork 

5) Leadership 

6) Communication